PREMA A/P TAMIL SELVAM

Name : PREMA A/P TAMIL SELVAM
Matric : D20102041135
Topic : BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR NOTES FOR
PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

Subject: KRT3013 - TEKNOLOGI MAKLUMAT SEKOLAH RENDAH
Group : EL-B06

Sunday, 11 December 2011

Lesson 10 : QUESTION TAGS

Question tags are short questions at the end of statements.
They are mainly used in speech when we want to:
a. confirm that something is true or not, or
b. to encourage a reply from the person we are speaking to.


Question tags are formed with the auxiliary or modal verb from the statement and the appropriate subject.


A positive statement is followed by a negative question tag.
  • Jack is from Spain, isn't he?
  • Mary can speak English, can't she?


A negative statement is followed by a positive question tag.                                              
  • They aren't funny, are they?
  • He shouldn't say things like that, should he?


When the verb in the main sentence is in the present simple we form the question tag with do / does.
  • You play the guitar, don't you?
  • Alison likes tennis, doesn't she?                                                                                                                     


If the verb is in the past simple we use did.
  • They went to the cinema, didn't they?
  • She studied in New Zealand, didn't she?


When the statement contains a word with a negative meaning, the question tag needs to be positive
  • He hardly ever speaks, does he?
  • They rarely eat in restaurants, do they?


Some verbs / expressions have different question tags. For example:                                                           
I am - I am attractive, aren't I?
Positive imperative - Stop daydreaming, will / won't you?
Negative imperative - Don't stop singing, will you?
Let's - Let's go to the beach, shall we?
Have got (possession) - He has got a car, hasn't he?
There is / are - There aren't any spiders in the bedroom, are there?
This / that is - This is Paul's pen, isn't it?


Intonation

When we are sure of the answer and we are simply encouraging a response, the intonation in the question tag goes down:
  • This is your car, isn't it?(Your voice goes down when you say isn't it.)
When we are not sure and want to check information, the intonation in the question tag goes up:
  • He is from Chile, isn't he?
    (Your voice goes up when you say isn't he.)




 Lets hear from the tutor:






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Question Tags Free English Grammar Game - Juegos de Gramática Inglés



Lesson 9 : Some - Any - A - An

A and AN

We use A/AN (articles) with singular countable nouns.
  • My brother has a ferret for a pet.                                                                                                   
  • There is an accident on the corner.
A is used when the next word starts with a consonant sound.
  • A book
  • A guitar
  • A friend
  • A university (The start of the word university sounds like YOU, a consonant sound).
AN is used when the next word starts with a vowel sound.
  • An apple
  • An ice-cream
  • An orange
  • An hour (the letter H in this word is silent so it sounds like it starts with a vowel).

Some and Any     

We use SOME and ANY with plural nouns and uncountable nouns.                                                            

Some is generally used in positive sentences.
Any is generally used in negative sentences.
  • I have some information for you about flights to Paris.
    (Positive - Uncountable)
  • I don't have any information for you about flights to Paris.
    (Negative - Uncountable)
  • We met some friends for drinks after work yesterday.
    (Positive - Plural Countable)
  • I didn't see any friends there on Thursday.
    (Negative - Plural Countable)
  • I think he will have some time to speak to you today.
    (Positive - Uncountable)
  • I don't think he will have any time to speak to you today.                                                                               
    (Negative - Uncountable)

You can also use SOME and ANY in a sentence without a noun if the meaning of the sentence is clear.
  • I didn't eat any salad but Peter ate some. (salad)
  • Sean took lots of photos of the mountains but Emma didn't take any. (photos)

Questions with Some and Any

Generally, we use ANY in questions.
  • Do you know any famous people?
  • Do you have any children?
But, SOME is used in the following circumstances:
1. When we are offering something.
  • Would you like some coffee?
  • Do you want some sugar for your coffee?                                                                                                            
2. When we are asking for something.
  • Could I have some salt, please?
  • Can I have some fries with that?
3. When we are suggesting something.
  • Why don't we rent some movies to watch tonight?
  • Why don't you give her some advice?

You can also use SOME and ANY in a sentence without a noun if the meaning of the sentence is clear.
I didn't eat any salad but Peter ate some. (salad)
Sean took lots of photos of the mountains but Emma didn't take any.








 
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Lesson 8 : Much - Many - Lot - Few

We use these words as quantifiers that come at the start of noun phrases and they tell us something about quantity.

A lot of vs. Lots of

A lot of and lots of are used to express that there is a large quantity of something.
We use a lot of in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. This expression can be used with countable or uncountable nouns.
  • There are a lot of dogs in the street. (Countable noun)
  • I have a lot of time to answer your questions. (Uncountable noun)                                                             
  • I saw a lot of people waiting in the queue. (Countable)
  • We did have a lot of fun, didn't we? (Uncountable)
We use lots of in positive and negative sentences, however it is more informal. It can be used with countable or uncountable nouns, and occasionally in questions.
  • We have lots of time to catch the plane, lets relax. (Uncountable noun)
  • There are lots of people in the queue today. (Countable)
  • Oh my, you have spent lots of money on clothes! (Uncountable)
  • I have lots of questions. (Countable)
She has a lot of money = She has lots of money

Much vs. Many

Much and Many are used to express that there is a large quantity of something.
Much and Many are used in negative sentences and questions.
Many is used with countable nouns
Much is used with uncountable nouns.
  • I don't have many CD's in my collection. (Countable noun)
  • They don't have much money to buy a present. (Uncountable noun)
  • How many brothers do you have? (Countable noun)
  • Is there much milk in the fridge? (Uncountable noun)
Note: we don't use Much and Many in positive sentences, we use a lot of or lots of.                                                      
I have much money. (Incorrect because the sentence is positive / affirmative)
I have a lot of money. (Correct)

Few vs. Little

We use Few and Little to suggest a small quantity.
Few is used with countable nouns
Little is used with uncountable nouns.
  • There are only a few days left until Christmas. (Countable noun)
  • There is little hope of finding your wallet. (Uncountable noun)
While Few and Little usually have positive meanings, very few and very little have negative meanings.
  • He is sad because he has very few friends. (Countable noun)
  • They have very little knowledge about politics. (Uncountable noun)
Lets hear from the tutor:











Want to play a game on this lesson while test your understanding? Click on the link below:
Much, Many, A lot of, Few - Free English Grammar Game - Mucho Poco en inglés - Juegos Gramática Inglés

Lesson 7: Question Words

QUESTION WORDS


The most common question words in English are the following:

WHO

WHO is only used when referring to people. (= I want to know the person)
Examples:
  • Who is the best football player in the world?                                                                                        
  • Who are your best friends?
  • Who is that strange guy over there?

WHERE

WHERE is used when referring to a place or location. (= I want to know the place)
Examples:
  • Where is the library?
  • Where do you live?
  • Where are my shoes?

WHEN 

WHEN is used to refer to a time or an occasion. (= I want to know the time)                                                              
Examples:
  • When do the shops open?
  • When is his birthday?
  • When are we going to finish?

WHY

WHY is used to obtain an explanation or a reason. (= I want to know the reason)
Examples:
  • Why do we need a nanny?
  • Why are they always late?
  • Why does he complain all the time?
Normally the response begins with "Because..."                                                                                                    

WHAT

WHAT is used to refer to specific information. (= I want to know the thing)                                                                                                                 
Examples:
  • What is your name?
  • What is her favourite colour?
  • What is the time?

WHICH

WHICH is used when a choice needs to be made. (= I want to know the thing between alternatives)
Examples:
  • Which drink did you order – the rum or the beer?
  • Which day do you prefer for a meeting – today or tomorrow?
  • Which is better - this one or that one?

HOW

HOW is used to describe the manner that something is done. (= I want to know the way)
Examples:
  • How do you cook paella?                                                                                                                                            
  • How does he know the answer?
  • How can I learn English quickly?

With HOW there are a number of other expressions that are used in questions:

How much – refers to a quantity or a price (uncountable nouns)
Examples:
  • How much time do you have to finish the test?
  • How much is the jacket on display in the window?
  • How much money will I need?

How many – refers to a quantity (countable nouns)
Examples:
  • How many days are there in April?
  • How many people live in this city?
  • How many brothers and sister do you have?
How often – refers to frequency                                                                                                                                   
Examples:
  • How often do you visit your grandmother?
  • How often does she study?
  • How often are you sick?

How far – refers to distance
Examples:
  • How far is the university from your house?
  • How far is the bus stop from here?

Lets hear from the tutor:





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Friday, 9 December 2011

Lesson 6 : Present vs Progressive vs Past Tense

Present Tense

We use the present tense:
1. For facts.
  • A square has four equal sides.
  • Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark.                                                                                                                  
2. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period.
  • Flights to Buenos Aires leave every thirty minutes.
  • The bells of the town clock ring every hour.
3. For habits
  • I brush my teeth every morning.
  • He goes to the gym after work.
4. For things that are generally true in the present time period.
  • Manchester United is the best team in European football at the moment.
  • My friend lives in San Francisco.
We use the present tense when the beginning or ending of an action, event or condition is unknown or unimportant to the meaning of the sentence.

Progressive Tense

We use the present progressive tense:
1. When somebody is doing something at the moment.
  • Carla is washing her hair.
  • Christian is playing table-tennis.
2. When something is happening at the moment.                                                                                                    
  • It is snowing at the moment.
  • The Christmas sales are happening as we speak.
3. To talk about something that is happening around the time of speaking but not necessarily at that exact moment.
  • My brother is learning how to play the violin at school.
  • Computers are becoming smaller and faster all the time.
A sentence in the Present Continuous indicates that the action, event or condition is ongoing. It is happening at this point in time and emphasizing the continuing nature of an act, event or condition.

Past Tense

The Past Tense is used:
1. To indicate that an action, event or condition has started and finished. It can be included with a time reference (for more information) or without.
  • They went to the beach.
  • Peter slept for ten hours.
2. To talk about something which was true in the past.
  • Kyoto was the capital of Japan for 1100 years.
  • Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of Great Britain.                                                                  
3. When we are talking about a particular time in the past.
  • I visited Egypt in 2000.
  • Marta spoke to her sister last night.
It can be included with a time reference (for more information) or without it.

Comparing the Tenses

A sentence in the Present Continuous indicates that the action, event or condition is ongoing. It is happening at this point in time and emphasizing the continuing nature of an act, event or condition.
A significant difference between the simple present tense and the Progressive Tense is:
We use the Simple Present Tense for things that are permanent
We use the Present Progressive for things that may change (are temporary).
Compare:
  • Simon lives in Birmingham. (Permanent)
  • Simon is living in Birmingham for six months. (Temporary)
  • It rains a lot in winter (Permanent)
  • It is raining outside (temporary)                                                                                                             


Present I live in Chile Right now - Permanent
Progressive I am living in Chile For the moment - Temporary                                                                             
Past I lived in Chile Happened in the past (not now)



Affirmative Negative Question
Present I live in Peru. I don't live in Peru. Do you live in Peru?
Progressive I'm living in Peru I'm not living in Peru. Are you living in Peru?
Past I lived in Peru. I didn't live in Peru. Did you live in Peru?










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Present vs Progressive vs Past Tense Free English Grammar Games - Juegos Interactivos Inglés

Lesson 5: Present Tense - Third person

Normally in the present tense we add S to the end of the verb in the 3rd person (He, She, It).
Verb 3rd Person
Speak Speaks
Play Plays
Give Gives
Make Makes
                                                                                                                                      
  • He speaks three languages.
  • She drinks coffee every morning.
  • My dog hates my cat.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs in English in the present tense follow very simple rules. The only change that is made to these verbs is in the third person – for He, She or It.
1. If the verb ends in SS, X, CH, SH or the letter O, we add + ES in the third person.
Verb 3rd Person
Kiss Kisses
Fix Fixes
Watch Watches
Crash Crashes
Go Goes

  • A mechanic fixes cars.                                                                                                                                  
  • She watches soap operas every afternoon.
  • He kisses his father before he goes to work.

2. If the verb ends in a Consonant + Y, we remove the Y and + IES in the third person.
Verb 3rd Person
Carry Carries
Hurry Hurries
Study Studies
Deny Denies
                                                                                                                                                                                  
  • Isabel studies every night.
  • The baby cries all the time.
  • He denies all responsibility.

Negative Sentence

To form the negative we use the auxiliary do not. Again, the only variation occurs in the 3rd person where we use does not.

Positive Negative
I talk I do not talk
She talks She does not talk
You sleep You do not sleep
He sleeps He does not sleep
Carol studies Carol does not study
We study We do not study


In the negative, the main verb is always in the bare infinitive (without TO). It doesn't change for the third person. We don't put an S on the end of the verb in the negative form. In the examples above - talk, sleep and study do not change in the 3rd person.

                                                                                                    


     

Lesson 4: Past Tense Irregular Verb List

The following is a list of Irregular Verbs in English:

Verb Past Simple
 Past Participle                                                                              
arise arose arisen
babysit babysat babysat
be was / were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
bend bent bent
begin began begun
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang* hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid lain
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie ** lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read *** read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood                                             
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
write wrote written

* HANG - Hang has two different meanings. The first is "to attach (or hang) something in a high position" (e.g. on the wall or on a hook). In this case we use the above verbs Hang-Hung-Hung.
BUT when Hang means "to kill someone by putting a rope around someone's neck and leaving them in a high position without any support", we use different verbs: Hang-Hanged-hanged. This verb is typical of public executions in the past. (e.g. They hanged him in the main square.)
** LIE - Lie has two meanings. When it means "to put your body in a horizontal position" (normally on a bed) it uses the Lie-Lay-Lain verbs.
BUT it is regular Lie-Lied-Lied when it has the other meaning of "not to say the truth".
*** READ - Even though they are written the same, the pronunciation is different in the Past Tense and Past Participle form.

Part Two

The following verbs can be regular or irregular:

Verb Past Simple Past Participle
burn burned OR burnt burned OR burnt
dream dreamed OR dreamt dreamed OR dreamt
learn learned OR learnt learned OR learnt
smell smelled OR smelt smelled OR smelt

The second form (burnt, dreamt etc.) is more common in British English.


Part Three

Verbs that have the same form in Present, Past and Past Participle form:

Verb Past Simple Past Participle
bet bet bet
broadcast broadcast broadcast
cut cut cut
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
let let let
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
set set set
shut shut shut
spread spread spread

All of the verbs above are written and pronounced the same in the three forms EXCEPT for Read which is written the same but pronounced differently.

Lets hear from the tutor:














Want to play a game on this lesson while test your understanding? Click on the link below:

Past Tense Irregular Verbs English Grammar Game - Juego de Verbos Irregulares en inglés